Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) are obtained by refining crude oil & fractionating natural gas andare mixtures of hydrocarbons, which are gaseous at normal ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure, but can be liquefied at normal ambient temperature, by application of moderate pressure.L.P.Gases are stored and transported in containers as a liquid but are generally drawn out and used as a gas.
At normal temperature and pressure, L.P.G. is a gas. It is compressed into a liquid by application of moderate pressure. When this happens, the volume is reduced approximately 240 times. When the pressure is released (by opening the cylinder valve) the liquid immediately becomes gas.
Over 10 crores of housewives in India already use L.P.G. for cooking and heating water. L.P.G. can also be used for heating rooms, and as fuel for refrigerators. In industry, L.P.G. is widely used in workshops and laboratories, for metal cutting, non-ferrous welding, brazing and flame cleaning, for generating special atmospheres required in the heat treatment processes, textile industry, glass industry and for numerous other industrial applications.
Look at the advantages L.P.G. gives you
L.P.G. gives you an instant cooking flame. All you do is to light a match, hold it over the burner head and turn the tap.
- L.P.G. gives you instant heat. There is no need to nurse the fire or wait for the appliance to warm up.
- L.P.G. gives you the correct amount of heat you require. The size of the blue flame is easily controlled. In some appliances there is a simmer position on the tap to help select the correct flame.
- L.P.G. gives you constant heat for as long as you want, without effort.
- L.P.G. adds to your comfort because cooking is quick and the kitchen does not get heated as with other fuels like wood and charcoal.
- L.P.G. forms no soot or grime and keeps your kitchen clean.
- The L.P.G. appliance is neat, attractive and easily cleaned. It lasts many years and requires little maintenance. It is a good investment.
- L.P.G. is easy to store. The cylinder is clean and occupies very little space
- If your appliance needs attention, which will not be often, the Distributor will provide technical service. You will need to pay only for any replacement parts required plus a nominal service charge.
L.P.G. appliance is highly efficient. L.P.G. is quick, clean, convenient and safe. It is cheaper than most other fuels expect perhaps kerosene but it does greatly outweigh the marginal extra cost. It is delivered at home.
No. You can use any kind of pan with L.P.G.However, if you are buying new pans, we recommend flat bottomed ones.
You can be sure that every L.P.G. cylinder normally contains 14.2 kg. of gas, because the corporation weighs and seal each cylinder. How long a cylinder lasts will depend on the many things like
- The number of people in your household.
- How many meals you prepare a day.
- The type of cooking you do.
- How economically you use the gas.
Frankly, the only accurate method is to weigh the cylinder since it has not yet been possible to evolve an apparatus that is sturdy, accurate and inexpensive. You will soon judge by experience how long a cylinder will last in your own kitchen. The L.P.G. Distributor makes very effort to deliver refill promptly to save you from inconvenience.
It would be not to your advantage since these items cost far more than the deposit you pay. Further the L.P.G. Distributor ensures that all loaned equipment is delivered to you in good condition. If there is any difficulty the Distributor changes the equipment free of charge unless of course loss or damage has been caused by you. This service would not be possible if the equipment belonged to the customers.
No. It is simple. When you open the cylinder valve and the appliance tap, the pressure inside the cylinder is reduced causing L.P.G. liquid to vaporize into gas. This gas is forced out of open valve and through a pressure regulator and a rubber tube unit it reaches the appliance where it mixed air and burnt. As the gas flows out the cylinder, more liquid turns onto gas and so on. This process goes on continuously till you shut off the cylinder valve or the appliance.
L.P.G. is just as safe as any other fuel. In fact, it is safer than most, because neither L.P.G. itself nor the end products causing by burning L.P.G. in a suitable appliance, are poisonous to breathe. Since L.P.G. cannot burn without air, there can never be a Flash back into the cylinder. You can feel safe with L.P.G. The most thorough precautions are taken to ensure the safety. All you have to do is to handle it according to the simple instruction given
- In normal use, a L.P.G. cylinder can never shatter or burst into little pieces. The Oil Corporations with the vast experience at its disposal has laid down rigid specifications for all L.P.G. equipment. No item is Authorities concerned.
- A well-known independent firm tests every new cylinder, or by representatives of ISI at several times the pressure it will normally have to contain. Each cylinder is retested very five years.
- The Corporation employs specially trained inspectors to ensure that cylinder valves/ pressure regulators are manufacture to comply with rigid specifications.
- The hotplate or cooker is of a type approved by ISI0, to ensure that the customer gets a safe and efficient appliance.
- LPG sold as a cooking fuel has a distinct smell that helps you detect gas leakage at once. This smell disappears immediately the gas is burnt and definitely not imparted to the food.
- LPG Distributors and their staff are trained to be safety conscious and to explain very carefully to customers how they should use LPG.
- An Instruction Card is given to each customer containing the simple rules to be followed.
Millions of years ago, the remains of plants and animals decayed and built up in thick layers. This decayed matter from plants and animals is called organic material -- it was once alive. Over time, the mud and soil changed to rock, covered the organic material and trapped it beneath the rock. Pressure and heat changed some of this organic material into coal, some into oil (petroleum), and some into natural gas -- tiny bubbles of odorless gas. The main ingredient in natural gas is methane, a gas (or compound) composed of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms.
In some places, gas escapes from small gaps in the rocks into the air; then, if there is enough activation energy from lightning or a fire, it burns. When people first saw the flames, they experimented with them and learned they could use them for heat and light.
The search for natural gas begins with geologists (people who study the structure of the earth) locating the types of rock that areusually found near gas and oil deposits.
Today their tools include seismic surveys that are used to find the right places to drill wells. Seismic surveys use echoes from a vibration source at the earth’s surface (usually a vibrating pad under a truck built for this purpose) to collect information about
the rocks beneath. Sometimes it is necessary to use small amounts of dynamite to provide the vibration that is needed.
Scientists and engineers explore a chosen area by studying rock samples from the earth and taking measurements. If the site seems promising, drilling begins. Some of these areas are on land but many are offshore, deep in the ocean. Once the gas is found, it flows up through the well to the surface of the ground and into large pipelines. Some of the gases that are produced along with methane, such as butane and propane (also known as 'by-products'), are separated and cleaned at a gas processing plant. The by-products, once removed, are used in a number of ways. For example, propane can be used for cooking on gas grills.
Because natural gas is colorless, odorless and tasteless, mercaptan (a chemical that has sulfur like odor) is added before distribution, to give it a distinct unpleasant odor (smells like rotten eggs). This serves as a safety device by allowing it to be detected in the atmosphere, in cases where leaks occur
LP Gas (or LPG) stands for “Liquefied Petroleum Gas”. It is the term widely used to describe a family of light hydrocarbons called “gas liquids”. The most prominent members of this family are propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10). Other members of the LP Gas family are ethane and pentane. These latter fuels have their own distinctive markets and are not further discussed here.
The term “liquefied gas” may seem a contradiction in terms since all things in nature are a liquid, a solid or a gas. Yet, it is the unique character of LP Gas that makes it such a popular and widely used fuel. LP Gas at normal temperature and pressure is a gas. It changes to a liquid when subjected to modest pressure or cooling. In liquid form the tank pressure is about twice the pressure in a normal truck tire.
The reason LP Gas is liquefied is to make it easy and efficient to transport and store. One unit of liquid has the same energy content as 270 units of gas. If left as a gas the container to hold the fuel would be 270 times larger than what is required as a liquid. In other words, LP Gas has density (compactness) for storage and transportation, yet all the benefits of a clean vaporous fuel when used at the burner tip or engine.
LP Gas usually consists of a mixture of propane and butane for standard heating and cooking purposes. Propane starts vaporising above -45°C, so it is more versatile for general use. Butane starts vaporising above -2°C and requires a propane/butane mixture in cold environments as it will not vaporise as readily as propane. LP Gas can also be used in specialised applications that require a more rigorous specification. Such applications include food processing, aerosol propellants and automotive fuel (autogas).
LP Gas was discovered in the early 1900s. Throughout the years thousands of applications have been developed to make use of this clean burning, all-purpose, readily available, portable and efficient fuel. Although the uses of LP Gas are widespread throughout the world, many are not as familiar with it as they are of the more familiar natural gas, electricity, gasoline (petrol), and diesel. Yet LP Gas provides the same benefits to consumers as these other energies safely and efficiently to tens of millions of everyday users.
Choosing LP Gas as an energy source represents a valuable contribution to the ongoing fight to conserve energy and protect the environment. With a wealth of applications, LP Gas offers numerous ways to provide energy and combat pollution at the same time.
LP Gas has literally thousands of uses around the home, on the farm, in commercial business, in industry and transportation. Wherever heat, light or power is required, LP Gas can be used.
The residential and commercial markets where it is used for cooking, heating, water heating, drying, and refrigeration consume some 50% of the world total LP Gas retail sales. When LP Gas provides heat, power, and light together, the combined system is a very cost effective total energy source.
LP Gas also has non-fuel uses as aerosols and refrigerants.
LP Gas as a Transportation Fuel
LP Gas is the preferred alternative automotive transportation fuel. Recognised early on in the search for viable alternative fuels, autogas is today the most important and accepted alternative fuel in the automotive sector with more than 7 million vehicles operating throughout the world. There are reasons why LP Gas is so popular. Driving range is equivalent to gasoline, engines last longer, refuelling infrastructure is affordable, and in many countries the fuel is less expensive. Above its technical and economic advantages, LP Gas is clean and helps combat urban air pollution. New hi-tech fuel systems work in consort with on-board emission control systems making it possible to meet even the most rigorous emission standards.
Cooking Central heating Space heating Hot water Air-conditioning Gas barbecue Patio heaters Camping Boats Gardening Swimming Pools Clothes drying
Heating (offices/premises) Portable warm air blowers Sanitary hot water Fixed warm air heaters Refrigeration Radiant heating Clothes drying Swimming pools Balanced flue heaters Terrace heaters Central heating Air-conditioning
Agriculture and horticulture industries around the world know that LP Gas is the “growing” fuel, not only the “green” fuel. Greenhouse heating, flame weeding, crop drying, waste incineration, distillation and powering equipment are among the ways LP Gas works in agriculture.
In industry the metalworking, ceramic and glass producers, textile, paper, construction industries and many others use LP Gas. These industries value this fuel that provides controllable heat only where wanted and leaves no residue after combustion. Whether across the street or across the oceans, moving goods is widely dependent on LP Gas powered forklift-industrial trucks.
- Ceramic manufacture
- Glass manufacturing
- Metal heating and processing
- Painting (drying and curing)
- Drying (cement, bricks)
- Cigarette lighter fuel
- Pre-heating of material
- Glazing of pottery
- Aluminium die-casting
- Laboratory (crucibles)
- Remote emergency lighting
- Pre-heating engines
- Paint removal (burning)
- Mobile & remote generators
- Clearing fog on airfields
- Production of film
- Feedstock for production of chemicals
Even the leisure industry is greatly dependent on LP Gas. Outdoor grill users prefer LP Gas because there is no messy charcoal to deal with, temperature control is instantaneous, and no residual fire that may cause harm. Whether for home, restaurants or party venues, patio heaters are commonly dependent on LP Gas. Even outdoor pest control is possible using LP Gas equipment. Whether providing heat, light and power for the camper in a national park or for the climbers to the top of Mount Everest, LP Gas is there.
Only this single fuel, LP Gas, can serve such a wide variety of uses as cooking fuel for the family in Brazil and the restaurant owner in India, refrigeration for the shop owner in Ireland, autogas for taxis in Tokyo, heat for the family home in Canada, flame weeding for the rancher in Texas, heat to provide lift for the first solo non-stop round the world balloon trip, hair spray for the Hollywood starlet, and life saving fuel for Mt. Everest climbers. Even the Olympic torch is LP Gas powered.
That’s is why it is sometimes referred to as the world’s most multi-purpose fuel.
Developing countries are now suffering serious and increasingly rapid de-forestation. In addition to environmental degradation, loss of forest cover removes the wood energy resources on which traditional rural economies are based. In response to the increasingly serious shortages, programs to conserve fuel wood supply and to expand fuel wood production have multiplied, but have frequently been ineffective due to a lack of understanding of the economic, political, social, and technical complexities of these problems.
Responses to these problems include tree-planting programs.
If globalization helps countries to have a higher growth rate and lift more people above the poverty line as in China and even India to some extent, it may indirectly protect environment and promote sustainable growth.
Poverty is a big polluter. For example, poor people cannot afford to use kerosene or LPG gas and often burn more polluting wood and coal as fuel. Apart from creating greater smoke, it leads to greater de-forestation, soil erosion and reduction in agricultural productivity, which in turn, adversely affects poor small farmers. With more purchasing power for such people, better connectivity and greater access to modern facilities like LPG gas, solar cookers and lights which globalization may bring about, the pollution level is likely to go down.